That Thrive on the Eastern Shore
American Beech
American Holly
Bald Cypress
Black Cherry
Black Gum
Black Locust
Flowering Dogwood
Loblolly Pine
Norhtern Red Oak
Red Cedar
Red Maple
Scarlet Oak
Virginia Pine

Planting Requirements and Plans

The requirements regarding planting are almost as varied as development disturbance that initiate them. Plantings are used as mitigation in the Resource Conservation Areas and the Limited Development Areas. While they may be used as part of the process to improve the post development water quality by ten percent, they do not provide for full compliance in the Intensely Developed Area. Below are listed a variety of compatible and native species and graphics explaining the planting and care of trees and shrubs. It should be noted that the use of native plant species is strongly encouraged. While non-native and even exotic species may be aesthetically pleasing, the intent for required planting is to provide for a more natural vegetated cover, similar to what exists in the wild. This provides for improved water quality, habitat for native wildlife and protects against the proliferation of undesirable vegetation, because it does not have natural controls.
1. Plant in the early spring or fall when temperatures are cool and evaporation and transpiration rates for plants are low.
2. Mulch the area over the roots with a maximum of 2 inches of mulch. Do not mound mulch around the base of the tree since mounding causes stem cranker and rot.
3. Remove weeds before they get too large since they use water needed by the new trees.
4. As plants become established, increase the time between waterings. As roots grow less frequest watering will be required. 5.Water only when the ground is dry. Stick a pencil into the ground to a depth of 4 to 6 inches. If the tip is damp, then no watering is necessary. 6. Do not let the water run off the landscape while you are watering. This will waste water and money. In order to prevent surface runoff (water leaving the planted area), restict the rate of flow to the point at which the soil can absorb water.
7. Water early in the morning. Daytime watering especially when its sunny or windy, increases the amount of water lost to evaporation( as much as 40% of water applied can be lost). Evening watering does not allow plant surfaces to dry and will encourage the spread of diseases such as powdery mildew.
8.Do not run into plants with lawn mowers or string trimmers because this may leave large cuts at the base of the plants and cause infection which could eventually lead to the death of the plant. 9.Use tree shelters for seedling because these durable polypropylene tubes act as a miniature "greenhouse" for your seedlings. They also protect against weather, animals and damage that could be caused by mowers or string trimmers.
It has been determined by research and observation that a Buffer that contains trees (canopy layer), smaller trees and shrubs (under story layer) and a vigorous ground cover (herbaceous layer) will better protect the water quality of the abutting stream or water body. Not only do the trees help remove nutrients from stormwater entering a natural water body, thus providing less nutrients for undesirable aquatic vegetation, they also shade the water. This helps provide optimum temperature for fish and other aquatic life. Also, in planning developments within the Critical Area care must be taken to provide a means for wildlife to pass from one area to another. Strips, if connecting forest, called wildlife corridors should be made a part of the overall development plan. However the individual property owner also needs to be sensitive to these corridors and not allow them to be compromised where they cross a residential lot. As an additional benefit to the homeowner, it is said that a mature tree provides as much cooling as a small window air conditioner due to transpiration. This is in addition to the shade that they afford.
One of the mandates for planting is the introduction of impervious surface (basically any surface that will shed rather than absorb water) onto a lot. For most properties this impervious surface limit is 15 % of the portion of the lot above mean high tide. On residential lots of less than acre and nonresidential lots of less than acre, this limit is 25%, providing the lot was zoned for or in this use before 12/1/1985.
Another is the clearing of forested areas. There are replanting requirements depending upon the percentage of the lot cleared. Most people deal with these two planting issues, however when one proposes to subdivide property, 15% of the entire area must be planted. This is often accomplished in the plantation spacing of 8'x8'. This same spacing may also be used in the mitigation plantings for impervious surface. For example, a 2000 square foot home (footprint) with a 600 square foot garage, 1250 square feet of driveway and walks and a small garden shed of 100 square feet comprise a total impervious surface of 3950 square feet. This is divided by 64 square feet (8'x8' spacing). This figure 62 plus the constant of 47, which represents the disturbance of the septic tank and drain field equals 109 trees that must be planted on site. If the lot is just too small, planting offsite or a payment of a fee in lieu can be substituted, but only is room does not exist on the lot. Staff from the Department of Technical and Community Services visits the planted areas to verify that the afforestation has been carried out in accordance with the plan submitted with the development proposal. It is required that 90% of the plants be alive at the end of the second growing season after development.
Although it is up to the individual applicant to choose plantings from the list of native species, he or she should be aware that the various conditions in Somerset may call for certain species in order to survive and meet the survival requirements of the program. The following list organizes recommended species that are likely to thrive under some of the common conditions in Somerset County. Additional questions can be directed to the Department.
Wet sites, ponds, wet edges: 6.7.04
Shrubs: Common Name Scientific Name
Black Chokeberry Aronia Melanocarpa
Dangleberry Gaylussacia Frondosa
Dense St. Johns Wort Hypericum Densiflorum
Sheep Laurel Kalmia Angustifolia
Allegheny Blackberry Rubus Allegheniensis
Red Chokeberry Aronia Arbutifolia
High-Tide Bush Baccharis Halimifolia
Buttonbush Cephalanthus Occidentalis
Winterberry Holly Ilex Verticillata
Virginia Sweetspire (Willow) Itea Virginica
Swamp Azalea Rhododendron Viscosum
Swamp Rose Rosa Palustris
Common Elderberry Sambucus Canadensis
Smooth Alder Alnus Serrulata
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia Virginiana
Black Haw Virburnum Viburnum Prunifolium
Box Elder Acer Negundo
Red Maple Acer Ruburm
Silver Maple Acer Saccharinum
River Birch Betula Nigra
Bitternut Hickory Carya Cordiformis
Pignut Hickory Carya Glabra
Hackberry Celtis Occidentalis
Green Ash Fraxinus Pennsylvanica
Sweet Gum Liquidambar Styraciflua
Black Gum Nyssa Sylvatica
Loblolly Pine Pinus Taeda
American Sycamore Platanus Occidentalis
Eastern Cottonwood Populus Deltoides
Pin Oak Quercus Palustris
Swamp White Oak Quercus Bicolor
Swamp Chestnut Oak Quercus Michauxii
Willow Oak Quercus Phellos
Black Willow Salix Nigra
Silky Willow Salix Sericea
Bald Cypress Taxodium Distichum
Arrow-Wood Viburnum Dentatum
Virginia Switchgrass Panicum Virgatum
Red Fescue Festuca Rubra
Tussock Sedge Carex Stricta
Gama Grass Tripsacum Dactyloides
Cutleaf Coneflower Rudbeckia Lancinata
Great Blue Lobelia Lobelia Siphilitica
Cardinal Flower Lobelia Cardinalis
Dry, sunny forest conditions:
Dangleberry Gaylussacia Frondosa
Dense St.John's Wort Hypericum Densiflorum
Sheep Laurel Kalmia Angustiflolia
Pasture Rose Rosa Carolina
Maple-Leaved Arrowwood Viburnum Acerifolium
Red Chokeberry Aronia Arbutifolia
Witch Hazel Hamamelis Virginiana
Wax Myrtle Myrica Cerilera
Smooth Sumac Rhus Glabra
Highbush Blueberry Vaccinium Corymbosum
Southern Arrowwood Viburnum Dentatum
Possum Haw Ilex Decidua
Mountain Laurel Kalmia Latifolia
Shining Sumac Rhus Copallina
Staghorn Sumac Rhus Typhina
White Fringetree Chionanthus Virginiucus
Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus Crus-Galli
Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus Virginiana
Pignut Hickory Carya Glabra
Common Persimmon Diospyros Virginiana
Black Gum Nyssa Sylvatica
Shortleaf Pine Pinus Echinata
Pitch Pine Pinus Rigida
Virginia Pine Pinus Virginiana
Chestnut Oak Quercus Prinus
Northern Red Oak Quercus Rubra
Black Oak Quercus Velutina
Black Locust Roninia Pseudoaceaia
Broomsedge Andropogon Virginius
Canada Wild Rye Elymus Canadensis
Bottlebrush Grass Elymus hystrix
Coastal Panic Grass Panicum Amarum
Little Bluestem Schizachyrium Scoparium
Indiangrass Sorghasturm Nutans
Partial shady, forest conditions (dry to moist)
Black Huckleberry Gaylussacia Baccata
Sheep Laurel Kalmia Angustifolia
Stagger-Bush Lyonia Mariana
Coast Azalea Rhododendron Atlanticum
Maple-Leaved Arrowwood Viburnum Acerifolium
Beautyberry Callicarpa Americana
Sweet Aepperbush Clethra Alnifolia
Witch Hazel Hamamelis Virginiana
Fetterbush Leucothoe Racemosa
Spicebush Lindera Benzoin
Male-Berry Lyonia Ligustrina
Wax Myrtle Myrica Cerifera
Northern Bayberry Myrica Pensylvanica
Southern Arrowwood Viburnum Dentatum
Possom Haw Ilex Decidua
Mountain Laurel Kalmia Latifolia
Shining Sumac Rhus Copallina
Serviceberry Amelanchier Canadensis
Chinquapin Castenea Pumila
Eastern Redbud Cercis Canadensis
White Fringetree Chionanthus Virginicus
Flowering Dogwood Cornus Florida
Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus Crus-Galli
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia Virginiana
Hop-Hornbeam Ostrya Virginiana
Southern Crabapple Pyrus Angustifolia
Sassafras Sassafras Albidum
Mockernut Hickory Carya Alba
Pignut Hickory Cary Glabra
Common Persimmon Diospyros Virginiana
Black Gum Nyssa Sylvatica
Chestnut Oak Quercus Prinus
Northern Red Oak Quercus Rubra
Blue Wood Sedge Carex Glaucodea
Sedge Carex Pensylvanica
Wild Oats Chasmanthium Latilolium
Bottlebrush Grass Elymus Hystrix
Virginia Wild Rye Elymus Virginicus
Salt tolerent plant species
Willow Oak Quercus Phellos
Bald Cypress Taxodium Distichum
Common Persimmon Diospyros Virginiana
Loblolly Pine Pinus Teda
Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus Virginiana
Red Oak Quercus Rubrum
White Oak Quercus Alba
Black Cherry Prunus Serotina
Seaside Alder Alnus Maritima
Choke Cherry Aronia Arbutifolia
shrubs: Bayberry Myrica Pensylvanica
Highbush Bluberry Vaccinium Corymbosum
Low Blueberry Vaccinium Vacillans
Sweet Mockorange
Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus Quinquefolia
grasses: Switch Grass Panicum Virgatum
Big Cordgrass Spartina Cynosuroides
Bluejoint Calamagrostis Canadensis
Common Three-Square Scirpus Spp.
Panic Grass Dichanthelium Spp.
Rushes Juncus Spp.
Salt Meadow Hay Spartina Patens
Salt Grass Distichlis Spicata
Sedges Carex Spp.
Smooth Cordgrass Spartina Alterniflora
Wild Rice Zizania Aquatica
Seaside Goldenrod Solidago Sempervirens
Hydrangia Hydrangia Arborescens
Garlic Mustard Alliara officinalis Day-lilly Hernerocallis fulva
  Arthraxon hispidus Purpe Loosestrife Lythrum glatum
Musk(nodding)thistle Carduus nutans Moneywort Lysimachia nummularia
Plumeless thistle Carduus accanthoides   Myoston aquaticum
Spotted knapweed Centuria maculosa Wild reed Phragmites australis
Bull thistle Cirsium vulgare Japanese knotweed Polygonum
Canada thistle Cirsium arvense Asian teathumb Polygonum perfoliatum
Crown vetch Coronilla varia Russian thistle Salsoia iberica
Beefsteak Mint Eulalia vimineus Johnson grass Sorgum hatepense
    Cocklebur Xanthium spp.
Porcelain Berry Ampelospsis brevipedunculata Oriental Bettersweet Celastrus orbiculatus
Climbing Eyonymus, Wintercreeper Euonymus fortunei English Ivy Hedera helix
Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicerca japonica Kudzu Pueraria jobata
Periwinkle Vinca minor Wisteria Wisteria floribunda, W. sinensis
Japanese Barberry Berberis thunbergii Common Buckthorn Rhamnus Cathartica
Russian Olive Eleagnus angustifolium Autumn Olive Eleagnnus umbellata
Multiflora Rose Rosa multiflora Winged Euonymus, Winged Wahoo Euonymus alatus
Strawberry-raspberry, balloonerry Rubus Illecebrosus Privet Ligustrum sp.
Wineberry Rubus phoenicolasius Japanese Spiraea Spiraea laponica
Bush Honeysuckles,include
Belle Honeysuckle
Amur Honeysuckle
Morrow's Honeysuckle
Tartarian Honeysuckle
Lonicera sp.
Lonicera x bella
Lonicera maackii
Lonicera morrowii
Lonicera tatarica
Coralberry Symphorlcarpos orbiculatus
Norway Maple Acer platanoides Tree of Heaven Ailonthus altissima
(Catalpa catalpa sp)* Russian Olive Eleagnus angustifolia
(White Mulberry Morun alba)* Empress Tree Paulownia tomentosa
(White Spruce Picea glauca) Sweet Cherry,bird Cherry Prunus avlum
*Species in parentheses are minor problems.
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database - Fact Sheets
Information on invasive and noxious plants
USDA - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection & Quarantine
Information on preventing the introduction of invasive species
The Nature Conservancy - Weeds on the Web
Control information on specific invasives - Weed Control Methods Handbook
Fire Management Program
National Biological Information System
Gateway to Federal Efforts - Impacts and responses to the National Invasive Species Council
Rutgers University
Photographs and control methods for invasive species
Southeastern Exotic Pest Plant Council
Also has link to the Mid Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council (MA-EPPC)
National Park Service - Plant Conservation Alliance
Bureau of Land Management Weeds Website
University of Maryland Extension Service - Home and Garden Information Center - Invasives Species Alert
Non-native Plants of Delaware
List of non-native (alien or exotic) species
Legislation Maps Land Use Categories The 100 Foot Buffer Planting Requirements Home Meetings and Events Zoning Board Planning Commission Rising Sea Levels Wetland Habitat Upland Habitat